Protocol for selecting exemplary silicate deposit compositions for evaluating thermal and environmental barrier coatings

Andrew R. Ericks, Frank W. Zok, David L. Poerschke, Carlos G. Levi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


A protocol for selecting representative silicate compositions for comparative testing of gas turbine coating materials is presented. It begins with a curated dataset of compositions of engine deposits and naturally occurring siliceous debris including volcanic ashes, sands, and dusts. The compositions are first reduced to the five major oxides—those of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, and Si—and then distilled further using principal component analysis and k-means clustering. The process ultimately yields four classes of possible deposits with common chemical characteristics. Each class is represented by a composition centroid and a range in Ca:Si ratios. Key thermophysical properties of the possible deposits are calculated and related to the glass network connectivity, characterized by the Si:O ratio. Finally, deposits from each of these classes are compared in terms of their reactions with prototypical thermal and environmental barrier oxides, with due consideration of the effects of composition variations within each deposit class. The protocol is, in principle, adaptable to datasets compiled by OEMs and researchers in gas turbine coatings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3665-3688
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the IHI Turbine Materials Research Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and by the Office of Naval Research under grants N00014‐19‐1‐2377 and N68335‐20‐C‐0472. The authors are grateful to W.D. Summers, C.S. Holgate (UCSB), W. Zhang, H. Mao (Thermo‐Calc), E.M. Zaleski, D. Litton (Pratt & Whitney), C.A. Johnson, D.M. Lipkin (GE Research) for helpful discussions.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The American Ceramic Society


  • CMAS
  • environmental barrier coatings (EBC)
  • phase equilibria
  • reaction path
  • thermal barrier coatings (TBC)


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