Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD), characterized by an abnormal accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, is closely linked to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and changes in lipogenesis in the liver. The accumulation of hepatic lipids can lead to a range of pathologies from mild steatosis to severe cirrhosis. Endurance exercise is known to ameliorate the adverse health effects of NAFLD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the metabolic changes in the livers of high-fat diet (HFD)- induced NAFLD mice and used LC-MS/MS (Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) to determine whether the tested intervention affected the protein expression profiles of the mouse livers. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control (CON), high-fat diet sedentary group (HFD), high-fat diet VWR group (HFX). HFX group performed voluntary wheel running into individually cages, given a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Food consumption, body weight, and running distance were measured every week. Using 2D (2- dimensional)-gel electrophoresis, we detected and quantitatively analyzed the protein expression with >2.0-fold change in the livers of HFD-fed mice, HFD-fed exercise (HFX) mice, and chow-fed mice. Body weight was significantly increased in HFD compared to CON (P < 0.05). The 2D-gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that there was a difference between CON and HFD groups, showing 31 increased and 27 decreased spots in the total 302 paired spots in the HFD group compared to CON. The analysis showed 43 increased and 17 decreased spots in the total 258 spots in the HFX group compared to CON. Moreover, 12 weeks of VWR showed an increase of 35 and a decrease of 8 spots in a total of 264 paired spots between HFD and HFX. LC-MS/MS of HFD group revealed that proteins involved in ketogenesis, lipid metabolism, and the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics were upregulated, whereas detoxifying proteins, mitochondrial precursors, transport proteins, proteasomes, and proteins involved in amino acid metabolism were downregulated. On the other hand, VWR counteracted the protein expression profile of HFD-fed mice by upregulating molecular chaperones, gluconeogenesis-, detoxification-, proteasome-, and energy metabolism-related proteins. This study provided a molecular understanding of the HFD- and exercise-induced protein marker expression and presented the beneficial effects of exercise during pathophysiological conditions.
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© 2022 So et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't