Bioconjugates are increasingly important in the fields of biotechnology, nanotechnology, and medicine. These hybrid materials consist of a synthetic macromolecule linked to a biomolecule such as a peptide or protein. Both the method used to produce the synthetic molecule and the technique of attachment to the biomolecule are important to the overall properties of the biohybrid. This chapter focuses on this emerging field of biotechnology and on the use of two controlled radical polymerization techniques, atom transfer radical polymerization and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, to create protein-polymer conjugates. The techniques of grafting to and grafting from are summarized, along with application of the resulting conjugates as therapeutics and nanocapsules.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Polymer Science|
|Subtitle of host publication||A Comprehensive Reference, 10 Volume Set|
|Number of pages||21|
|State||Published - 2012|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Heather D. Maynard received a BS in chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1992 and an M.S. in materials science in 1995 from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her PhD from the California Institute of Technology was awarded in 2000. She then moved to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH), where from 2000 to 2002 she was an American Cancer Society Postdoctoral Fellow. Dr. Maynard joined the UCLA faculty as an Assistant Professor in 2002, as the first Howard Reiss Career Development Chair in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and as a member of the California NanoSystems Institute. She is now an Associate Professor. Since arriving at UCLA, Maynard has given over 120 invited lectures, including the WCC ACS Lecture at Southern Methodist University and the Walter F. Enz Lectures at the University of Kansas. Maynard has been selected as an Outstanding Emerging Investigator by the Journal of Materials Chemistry and has received the Amgen New Faculty Award, NSF Career Award, Seaborg Award, and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship for her research.
Zachary P. Tolstyka graduated with an honors BS from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 2005, where he worked with Professor Adam Matzger on the discovery of novel crystal polymorphs of organic compounds. His research earned him multiple summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (2003, 2004) and the Florence Fenwick Outstanding Senior award. He is currently working toward his PhD in organic chemistry in the Maynard group at the University of California, Los Angeles. Zachary was a trainee under the NIH-sponsored Biotechnology Training Grant from 2006 to 2008 and also held a fellowship from the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (2009–10). His research focuses on the application of atom transfer radical polymerization for the development of an anticancer drug delivery agent and self-assembled monolayers for the development of protein arrays.
- Atom transfer radical polymerization
- Controlled radical polymerization
- Grafting from
- Grafting to
- Poly(ethylene glycol)
- Protein-polymer conjugate
- Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization
- Site-selective conjugation