Protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of troponin (Tn)I represents a major physiological mechanism during β-adrenergic stimulation in myocardium for the reduction of myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity via weakening of the interaction with TnC. By taking advantage of thin filament reconstitution, we directly investigated whether or not PKA-dependent phosphorylation of cardiac TnI (cTnI) decreases Ca2+ sensitivity in different types of muscle: cardiac (porcine ventricular) and fast skeletal (rabbit psoas) muscles. PKA enhanced phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser23/24 in skinned cardiac muscle and decreased Ca2+ sensitivity, of which the effects were confirmed after reconstitution with the cardiac Tn complex (cTn) or the hybrid Tn complex (designated as PCRF; fast skeletal TnT with cTnI and cTnC). Reconstitution of cardiac muscle with the fast skeletal Tn complex (sTn) not only increased Ca2+ sensitivity, but also abolished the Ca 2+-desensitizing effect of PKA, supporting the view that the phosphorylation of cTnI, but not that of other myofibrillar proteins, such as myosin-binding protein C, primarily underlies the PKA-induced Ca2+ desensitization in cardiac muscle. Reconstitution of fast skeletal muscle with cTn decreased Ca2+ sensitivity, and PKA further decreased Ca 2+ sensitivity, which was almost completely restored to the original level upon subsequent reconstitution with sTn. The essentially same result was obtained when fast skeletal muscle was reconstituted with PCRF. It is therefore suggested that the PKA-dependent phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of cTnI universally modulates Ca2+ sensitivity associated with cTnC in the striated muscle sarcomere, independent of the TnT isoform.