Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Legionella pneumophila occurred in a woman who had aortic and mitral valve replacements with porcine xenografts. During surgery for persistent fever and aortic regurgitation due to presumed endocarditis, she had vegetations involving both the aortic and mitral valve prostheses with a circumferential abscess of the aortic annulus. Cultures, Dieterle stain, and direct fluorescent antibody stain of valve tissue, and subsequent measurements of serum antibody levels confirmed L. pneumophila as the infecting organism. This infection occurred in the absence of pneumonia. Legionella pneumophila must be considered a potential cause of culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis and should be sought in appropriate clinical circumstances.