This prospective longitudinal study investigated the association between childhood factors (individual, family, and school characteristics) and later antisocial behavior (official juvenile delinquency and adult crime) for students identified with high-incidence disabilities (i.e., learning disabilities, emotional disturbance). The sample consisted of 1,370 economically disadvantaged, predominantly minority students living in a large urban area. Findings indicated that students with high-incidence disabilities had higher rates of juvenile delinquency and adult crime. Individual (classroom adjustment), family (parent participation in school and child abuse/neglect), and school factors (preschool program participation, school quality, and school mobility) were differentially associated with juvenile delinquency and adult crime while controlling for demographics and early child and family risks. Implications for intervention, policy, and future research to address the needs of students with high-incidence disabilities are discussed.