Many patients receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy acquire thrombocytopenia and need platelet transfusions. A study was conducted to determine whether platelets harvested from healthy donors treated with thrombopoietin could provide larger increases in platelet counts and thereby delay time to next platelet transfusion compared to routinely available platelets given to thrombocytopenic patients. Community platelet donors received either 1 or 3 μg/kg pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) or placebo and then donated platelets 10 to 15 days later. One hundred sixty-six of these platelet concentrates were then transfused to 120 patients with platelets counts 25 × 10 9/L or lower. Pretransfusion platelet counts (11 × 10 9/L) were similar for recipients of placebo-derived and PEG-rHuMGDF-derived platelets. Early after transfusion, the median platelet count increment was higher in patients receiving PEG-rHuMGDF-derived platelets: 19 (range, -12-66) × 10 9/L, 41 (range, 5-133) × 10 9/L, and 82 (range, -4-188) × 10 9/L for placebo-, 1-μg/kg-, and 3-μ/kg-derived platelets, respectively. This difference was maintained 18 to 24 hours after transfusion. Transfusion-free intervals were 1.72, 2.64, and 3.80 days for the recipients of the placebo-, 1-μg/kg-, and 3-μg/kg-derived platelets, respectively. The rate of transfusion-related adverse events was not different in recipients of placebo-derived and PEG-rHuMGDF-derived platelets. Therefore, when transfused into patients with thrombocytopenia, platelets collected from healthy donors undergoing thrombopoietin therapy were safe and resulted in significantly greater platelet count increments and longer transfusion-free intervals than platelets obtained from donors treated with placebo.