Purpose: This paper presents the treatment of a 12-year-old female spayed Great Dane who presented with vestibular signs (ataxia, nystagmus, hind end collapse). Thoracic radiographs revealed a discrete pulmonary nodule in the right cranial lung lobe. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate detected primary bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, verified via computed tomography, with a second smaller nodule discovered in the right cranial lung lobe. Materials and methods: A lateral thoracotomy with right cranial lung lobectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis of the nodules and an excised lymph node identified grade III bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma with vascular infiltration and lymph node metastasis-a grim diagnosis with a reported median survival time of 6-27 days. A 10-g sample of the tumour was processed into a chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) vaccine, which was administered weekly to the patient. Imiquimod-a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist-was applied topically for the first 12 treatments to stimulate local Langerhans cells. A single injection of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was administered for additional immune stimulation at week 30 of treatment. Results: The dog remained stable and in otherwise good health until diffuse relapse occurred 44 weeks after the initial treatment; following gastrointestinal bleeding, the dog was euthanised 50+ weeks post diagnosis. Conclusion: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of significantly prolonged survival following a diagnosis of grade III/stage III bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma in a canine patient. This case report suggests that CRCL vaccine combined with topical imiquimod is a safe, effective treatment for canine tumours.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the University of Colorado Cancer Center (anonymous gift to M.W.G.), and the Anschutz Foundation (to K.O.L. and M.W.G.). L.M.E. is a Skippy Frank Fund Scholar. M.W.G. has served as a consultant for Immunovative Therapies, which has licensed CRCL for clinical use. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Cancer vaccine
- Canine lung tumour
- Chaperone-rich cell lysate
- Heat shock proteins
- Tumour immunity