Proline editing: A general and practical approach to the synthesis of functionally and structurally diverse peptides. Analysis of steric versus stereoelectronic effects of 4-substituted prolines on conformation within peptides

Anil K. Pandey, Devan Naduthambi, Krista M. Thomas, Neal J. Zondlo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Scopus citations

Abstract

Functionalized proline residues have diverse applications. Herein we describe a practical approach, proline editing, for the synthesis of peptides with stereospecifically modified proline residues. Peptides are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis to incorporate Fmoc-hydroxyproline (4R-Hyp). In an automated manner, the Hyp hydroxyl is protected and the remainder of the peptide synthesized. After peptide synthesis, the Hyp protecting group is orthogonally removed and Hyp selectively modified to generate substituted proline amino acids, with the peptide main chain functioning to "protect" the proline amino and carboxyl groups. In a model tetrapeptide (Ac-TYPN-NH2), 4R-Hyp was stereospecifically converted to 122 different 4-substituted prolyl amino acids, with 4R or 4S stereochemistry, via Mitsunobu, oxidation, reduction, acylation, and substitution reactions. 4-Substituted prolines synthesized via proline editing include incorporated structured amino acid mimetics (Cys, Asp/Glu, Phe, Lys, Arg, pSer/pThr), recognition motifs (biotin, RGD), electron-withdrawing groups to induce stereoelectronic effects (fluoro, nitrobenzoate), handles for heteronuclear NMR (19F:fluoro; pentafluorophenyl or perfluoro-tert-butyl ether; 4,4-difluoro; 77SePh) and other spectroscopies (fluorescence, IR: cyanophenyl ether), leaving groups (sulfonate, halide, NHS, bromoacetate), and other reactive handles (amine, thiol, thioester, ketone, hydroxylamine, maleimide, acrylate, azide, alkene, alkyne, aryl halide, tetrazine, 1,2-aminothiol). Proline editing provides access to these proline derivatives with no solution-phase synthesis. All peptides were analyzed by NMR to identify stereoelectronic and steric effects on conformation. Proline derivatives were synthesized to permit bioorthogonal conjugation reactions, including azide-alkyne, tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene, oxime, reductive amination, native chemical ligation, Suzuki, Sonogashira, cross-metathesis, and Diels-Alder reactions. These proline derivatives allowed three parallel bioorthogonal reactions to be conducted in one solution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4333-4363
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume135
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 20 2013
Externally publishedYes

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