Background: This report examines the outcome data for Project PREVENT, a two-site randomized control trial designed to reduce behavioral risk factors for colorectal cancer among individuals who have been diagnosed with adenomatous colon polyps. Methods: The study sample included 1,247 patients with recent diagnosis of adenomatous colorectal polyps. Within 4 weeks following the polypectomy, participants completed a baseline survey by telephone, and were randomized to either Usual Care (UC) or the PREVENT intervention, which was designed to target multiple risk factors. The intervention consisted of a telephone-delivered intervention plus tailored materials, and focused on the six primary behavioral risk factors for colorectal cancer, including red meat consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, multivitamin intake, alcohol, smoking, and physical inactivity. Results: Participation in the PREVENT intervention was associated with a significantly greater reduction in prevalence of multiple risk factors for colorectal cancer compared with UC. Only about one third of UC participants dropped any risk factors during the study period, compared with almost half of the PREVENT participants. PREVENT participants were also significantly more likely to change more than one behavior than UC participants. Conclusions: The PREVENT intervention was effective in helping patients change multiple risk factors. These results provide further support that more comprehensive interventions that move beyond emphasis on a single risk factor are acceptable to patient populations, can result in improvements, and are cost effective.