Harnessing the ability of the immune system to eradicate cancer has been a long-held goal of oncology. Work from the last two decades has finally brought immunotherapy into the forefront for cancer treatment, with demonstrable clinical success for aggressive tumors where other therapies had failed. In this review, we will discuss a range of therapies that are in different stages of clinical or preclinical development for companion animals with cancer, and which share the common objective of eliciting adaptive, anti-tumor immune responses. Even though challenges remain, manipulating the immune system holds significant promise to create durable responses and improve outcomes in companion animals with cancer. Furthermore, what we learn from this process will inform and accelerate development of comparable therapies for human cancer patients.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to thank Donald Bellgrau and Richard Marshak for review of the manuscript and helpful suggestions, and Dave Mottet for assistance with illustrations. Katie L. Anderson was supported by a Howard Hughes Medical Research Fellowship and is currently supported by a National Institute of Health fellowship 1F30CA195973-01. Jaime F. Modiano is supported in part by the Alvin and June Perlman Endowed Chair in Animal Oncology. The authors gratefully acknowledge donors to the Animal Cancer Care and Research Program of the University of Minnesota that helped support this project.
- Adaptive immunity
- Fas ligand