Prognostic value of a novel classification scheme for heart failure: The Minnesota Heart Failure Criteria

Joseph Kim, David R Jacobs Jr, Russell V Luepker, Eyal Shahar, Karen L. Margolis, Mark P. Becker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The authors present the Minnesota Heart Failure Criteria (MHFC), derived using latent class analysis from widely available items in the Framingham Criteria. The authors used 1995 and 2000 data on hospitalized Minnesota Heart Survey subjects discharged after myocardial infarction or heart failure (N = 7,379). Selected Framingham Criteria variables (dyspnea, pulmonary rales, cardiomegaly, interstitial or pulmonary edema on chest radiograph, S 3 heart sound, tachycardia) plus left ventricular ejection fraction were used. The discriminatory power of the MHFC was evaluated using age- and sex-adjusted 2-year mortality. A five-class latent class analysis model was collapsed into cases and noncases. Mortality estimates discriminated noncases (18%) from cases (43%) (p < 0.001). The MHFC performed better than previous truncated criteria (Framingham Criteria: 26% noncases, 43% cases; Duke Criteria: 29%, 40%; Killip Score: 31%, 44%; Boston Score: 28%, 45%). In a subset of patients admitted for heart failure (n = 5,128), the MHFC identified all but 2% (116/4,746) of cases found with a nearly full version of the Framingham Criteria. In terms of prognostic value, the MHFC are as precise as or more precise than several previous sets of truncated criteria. They closely approximate a nearly full version of the Framingham Criteria but require many fewer variables and can facilitate epidemiologic case-finding for heart failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-193
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding was provided in part by grants RO1-HL-23727 and RO1-HL60959 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.


  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Classification
  • Diagnosis
  • Heart diseases
  • Heart failure, congestive
  • Validation studies [publication type]


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