Prognostic variables such as the ejection fraction and peak oxygen consumption can be used to place patients with heart failure in risk strata. Some vasodilators have been shown to improve survival at all stages of heart failure with the probability of benefit increasing as the prognosis worsens. Quantitative estimates of survival among groups defined by prognostic variables and treatments should be used to make more informed benefit-to- risk assessments.
- risk strata
- sudden death