Prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis

Michael J. Fine, Melanie A. Smith, Catherine A. Carson, Sunita S. Mutha, Steadman S. Sankey, Lisa A. Weissfeld, Wishwa N. Kapoor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

435 Scopus citations


Objective. - To systematically review the medical literature on the prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data Sources. - A MEDLINE literature search of English-language articles involving human subjects and manual reviews of article bibliographies were used to identify studies of prognosis in CAP. Study Selection. - Review of 4573 citations revealed 122 articles (127 unique study cohorts) that reported medical outcomes in adults with CAP. Data Extraction. - Qualitative assessments of studies' patient populations, designs, and patient outcomes were performed. Summary univariate odds ratios (ORs) and rate differences (RDs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (Cls) were computed to estimate a summary effect size for the association of prognostic factors and mortality. Data Synthesis. - The overall mortality for the 33148 patients in all 127 study cohorts was 13.7%, ranging from 5.1% for the 2097 hospitalized and ambulatory patients (in six study cohorts) to 36.5% forthe 788 intensive care unit patients (in 13 cohorts). Mortality varied by pneumonia etiology, ranging from less than 2% to greater than 30%. Eleven prognostic factors were significantly associated with mortality using both summary ORs and RDs: male sex (OR=1.3; 95% Cl, 1.2 to 1.4), pleuritic chest pain (OR=0.5; 95% Cl, 0.3 to 0.8), hypothermia (OR=5.0; 95% Cl, 2.4 to 10.4), systolic hypotension (OR=4.8; 95% Cl, 2.8 to 8.3), tachypnea (OR=2.9; 95% Cl, 1.7 to 4.9), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.3; 95% Cl, 1.1 to 1.5), neoplastic disease (OR=2.8; 95% Cl, 2.4 to 3.1 ), neurologic disease (OR=4.6; 95% Cl, 2.3 to 8.9), bacteremia (OR=2.8; 95% Cl, 2.3 to 3.6), leukopenia (OR=2.5; 95% Cl, 1.6 to 3.7), and multilobar radiographic pulmonary infiltrate (OR=3.1; 95% Cl, 1.9 to 5.1). Assessments of other clinically relevant medical outcomes such as morbid complications (41 cohorts), symptoms resolution (seven cohorts), return to work or usual activities (five cohorts), or functional status (one cohort) were infrequently performed. Conclusions. - Mortality for patients hospitalized with CAP was high and was associated with characteristics of the study cohort, pneumonia etiology, and a variety of prognostic factors. Generalization of these findings to all patients with CAP should be made with caution because of insufficient published information on medical outcomes other than mortality in ambulatory patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)134-141
Number of pages8
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 10 1996


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