Progesterone effects on subjective and physiological responses to intravenous nicotine in male and female smokers

Mehmet Sofuoglu, Ellen Mitchell, Marc E Mooney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Objective: Previous studies suggest possible modulatory effects of progesterone on nicotine addiction. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of progesterone, on acute physiological and subjective responses to intravenous (IV) nicotine in overnight abstinent male and female smokers. Methods: Twelve smokers, six males and six females, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, which consisted of two experimental sessions. Before each session, subjects were treated orally with a single dose of either 200 mg progesterone or placebo. Starting 2 h following the medication treatment, subjects received an IV saline injection, followed by 0.5 and 1.0 mg/70 kg IV nicotine. Results: Progesterone treatment, compared to placebo, enhanced the ratings of "bad effects," from IV nicotine and attenuated the rating of "drug liking." Progesterone also enhanced suppression of smoking urges by nicotine as assessed by the Brief Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (BQSU). Conclusions: These results suggest that progesterone may alter the subjective effects of nicotine as well as urges to smoke cigarettes. Further studies are warranted to examine the modulation of nicotine's effects by gonadal hormones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559-564
Number of pages6
JournalHuman Psychopharmacology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2009


  • Gender differences
  • Gonadal hormones
  • IV nicotine
  • Nicotine
  • Progesterone
  • Sex differences


Dive into the research topics of 'Progesterone effects on subjective and physiological responses to intravenous nicotine in male and female smokers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this