Professional Development for Data-Based Instruction in Early Writing: Tools, Learning, and Collaborative Support

Erica S. Lembke, Kristen L. McMaster, R. Alex Smith, Abigail Allen, Dana R Brandes, Kyle Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Few teachers receive adequate preparation to provide effective individualized instruction for children with intensive early writing needs. In this article, the authors describe an attempt to close this learning gap, by developing Data-Based Instruction-Tools, Learning, and Collaborative Support (DBI-TLC), a comprehensive professional development (PD) system that provides tools, learning opportunities, and ongoing collaborative supports for teachers to implement DBI in early writing. They describe the theoretical framework that has guided this work, the teacher population with whom they worked, their approach to assessing important teacher outcomes, and their development process. They highlight key findings that align with their theory of change, and discuss implications for further research and teacher preparation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-120
Number of pages15
JournalTeacher Education and Special Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported in part by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R324A130144 to the University of Minnesota.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children.


  • assessment
  • curriculum-based measurement
  • general special education
  • quasi-experimental research
  • research methods
  • response to intervention
  • writing instruction


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