Procedures for numerical analysis of circadian rhythms

Roberto Refinetti, Germaine G Cornelissen-Guillaume, Franz Halberg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

540 Scopus citations


This article reviews various procedures used in the analysis of circadian rhythms at the populational, organismal, cellular and molecular levels. The procedures range from visual inspection of time plots and actograms to several mathematical methods of time series analysis. Computational steps are described in some detail, and additional bibliographic resources and computer programs are listed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-325
Number of pages51
JournalBiological Rhythm Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Work for this review was partially funded by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH-066826) and the National Science Foundation (IBN-0343917) to RR and by a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM-013981) to FH. The authors thank Professors Jim Waterhouse and Wop Rietveld for comments on a previous version of the article.


  • Biostatistics
  • Chronobiology
  • Chronomics
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Time series analysis


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