Probiotic/prebiotic supplementation of antiretrovirals improves gastrointestinal immunity in SIV-infected macaques

Nichole R Klatt, Lauren A Canary, Xiaoyong Sun, Carol L Vinton, Nicholas T Funderburg, David R Morcock, Mariam Quiñones, Clayton B Deming, Molly Perkins, Daria J Hazuda, Michael D Miller, Michael M Lederman, Julie A Segre, Jeffrey D Lifson, Elias K Haddad, Jacob D Estes, Jason M Brenchley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


HIV infection results in gastrointestinal (GI) tract damage, microbial translocation, and immune activation, which are not completely ameliorated with suppression of viremia by antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Furthermore, increased morbidity and mortality of ARV-treated HIV-infected individuals is associated with these dysfunctions. Thus, to enhance GI tract physiology, we treated SIV-infected pigtail macaques with ARVs, probiotics, and prebiotics or with ARVs alone. This synbiotic treatment resulted in increased frequency and functionality of GI tract APCs, enhanced reconstitution and functionality of CD4+ T cells, and reduced fibrosis of lymphoid follicles in the colon. Thus, ARV synbiotic supplementation in HIV-infected individuals may improve GI tract immunity and thereby mitigate inflammatory sequelae, ultimately improving prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)903-7
Number of pages5
JournalThe Journal of clinical investigation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage
  • Animals
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology
  • HIV Infections/immunology
  • Humans
  • Macaca nemestrina
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics/administration & dosage
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/genetics
  • Transcriptome

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural


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