Probiotic supplementation reduces inflammatory profiles but does not prevent oral immune perturbations during SIV infection

Rhianna Jones, Kyle Kroll, Courtney Broedlow, Luca Schifanella, Scott Smith, Brady Hueber, Spandan V. Shah, Daniel R. Ram, Cordelia Manickam, Valerie Varner, Nichole R. Klatt, R. Keith Reeves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


HIV/SIV infections lead to massive loss of mucosal CD4 + T cells and breakdown of the epithelial mucosa resulting in severe microbial dysbiosis and chronic immune activation that ultimately drive disease progression. Moreover, disruption of one of the most understudied mucosal environments, the oral cavity, during HIV-induced immunosuppression results in significant microbial and neoplastic co-morbidities and contributes to and predicts distal disease complications. In this study we evaluated the effects of oral probiotic supplementation (PBX), which can stimulate and augment inflammatory or anti-inflammatory pathways, on early SIV infection of rhesus macaques. Our study revealed that similar to the GI mucosae, oral CD4 + T cells were rapidly depleted, and as one of the first comprehensive analyses of the oral microflora in SIV infection, we also observed significant modulation among two genera, Porphyromonas and Actinobacillus, early after infection. Interestingly, although PBX therapy did not substantially protect against oral dysbiosis or ameliorate cell loss, it did somewhat dampen inflammation and T cell activation. Collectively, these data provide one of the most comprehensive evaluations of SIV-induced changes in oral microbiome and CD4 + T cell populations, and also suggest that oral PBX may have some anti-inflammatory properties in lentivirus infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number14507
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 15 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by R01 DE026327, R01 DE026014, and R21 AI145678 (to R.K.R.). The authors also acknowledge the CFAR/CVVR Flow Cytometry Core (P30 AI060354).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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