The need for essential basic nutrients is the same for all persons of equivalent age, sex and size, whether diabetic or not. For persons with diabetes treated with insulin or glucose-lowering agents, special precautions regarding kinds, amounts, distribution, and timing of food intake are required. In general, some liberalization in carbohydrate intake is recommended., prefereably as complex carbohydrate (starch associated with fiber) and as a replacement for some of the fat. This does not imply that unlimited ingestion of carbohydrate, particularly as sugars, is advocated. A regimen of insulin, diet, and exercise should be designed that takes into consideration, when feasible, the food preferences and eating habits of that individual. Therapy for the obsese non-insulin-dependent diabetic person is based primarily on weight control. Although compliance with such regimens may be difficult, special attention on the part of health-care professionals working as a team can yield encouraging results. It is recognized that the field of nutrition is a dynamic science. As new facts emerge and concepts change, the nutritional recommendations for diabetic and nondiabetic persons will continue to undergo evolution and modification. However, with the information now available it is possible to make the diet for individuals with diabetes more flexible and compatible with the usual American life-style. It is hoped it will also lead to improved health and life expectancy.