Primary musculoskeletal sarcoidosis

Okechukwu A. Anakwenze, Vamsi Kancherla, Michael Hatch, John S. Brooks, Christian M. Ogilvie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Sarcoidosis is a well-described clinical entity with several types of presentation among different organ systems. However, primary musculoskeletal manifestation is a rare and seldom-described manifestation. A retrospective review of patients seen at our institution from 1999 to 2009 was performed to identify patients with such presentation. Eleven patients with musculoskeletal sarcoidosis were identified. Seven patients presented with solitary lesions, while 4 presented with multiple foci of disease. Histologically, all lesions revealed granulomatous inflammation consistent with sarcoidosis. Cultures and gram stain were negative in all patients. One patient was found to have evidence of pulmonary sarcoidosis after diagnosis of musculoskeletal sarcoidosis. Eight patients had primarily soft tissue involvement with visible masses, while 3 patients had primarily osseous involvement with no mass. Pain was reported by 9 of 11 patients. On magnetic resonance imaging, all lesions were dark on T1, bright on T2, and poorly marginated. Magnetic resonance imaging was noted to be more accurate in revealing the pathology than radiographic imaging. Four patients underwent complete excision and 1 received a steroid injection. The remaining patients required no further treatment after diagnosis. Musculoskeletal sarcoidosis is rare and can present as single or multiple lesions. Definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. The decision to operate should be based on symptoms, issues with cosmesis, impending fractures, growth, and/or involvement of neurovascular structures. Patients should be evaluated for pulmonary involvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2010


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