Primary cultures of neurons provide opportunities to study the cell biology of neurons under controlled conditions. Because differences exist in cellular properties among populations of neurons in the brain, survival requirements for neurons among these regions differ as well. This chapter outlines protocols for the preparation of primary cultures of spinal cord from 2-d-old neonatal rats. One protocol prepares cultures enriched in neurons and an alternative procedure prepares cultures enriched in non-neuronal cells. Comparison of biochemical data between these two culture preparations allows deductions of effects of treatments on neurons in the cultures. Limitations in interpretation of data obtained from cultured neurons are discussed.