Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

Jack Cuzick, Mangesh A. Thorat, Gerald Andriole, Otis W. Brawley, Powel H. Brown, Zoran Culig, Rosalind A. Eeles, Leslie G. Ford, Freddie C. Hamdy, Lars Holmberg, Dragan Ilic, Timothy J. Key, Carlo La Vecchia, Hans Lilja, Michael Marberger, Frank L. Meyskens, Lori M. Minasian, Chris Parker, Howard L. Parnes, Sven PernerHarry Rittenhouse, Jack Schalken, Hans Peter Schmid, Bernd J. Schmitz-Dräger, Fritz H. Schröder, Arnulf Stenzl, Bertrand Tombal, Timothy J. Wilt, Alicja Wolk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

306 Scopus citations


Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e484-e492
JournalThe Lancet Oncology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Vesna Florijancic, Liz Pinney, and Ellie Stewart for administrative assistance. This Review was sponsored and funded by the International Society of Cancer Prevention (ISCaP), the European Association of Urology (EAU), the National Cancer Institute, USA (NCI) (grant number 1R13CA171707-01), Prostate Cancer UK, Cancer Research UK (CRUK) (grant number C569/A16477), and the Association for International Cancer Research (AICR). Sponsors and funding sources had no role in the discussion or writing of this manuscript. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not represent the official position of the authors' respective institutions.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


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