Prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in Miniature Schnauzers and genetic investigation of a Belgian Malinois with persistent Müllerian duct syndrome

M. M. Smit, K. J. Ekenstedt, K. M. Minor, C. K. Lim, P. A.J. Leegwater, E. Furrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a sex-limited disorder in which males develop portions of the female reproductive tract. Important consequences of PMDS are cryptorchidism and its sequelae of infertility and increased risk of testicular cancer. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and its receptor (AMHR2) induce the regression of the Müllerian ducts in male embryos. In Miniature Schnauzer dogs, the genetic basis has been identified as an autosomal recessive nonsense mutation in AMHR2, but the allele frequency of the mutation is unknown. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in North American Miniature Schnauzers, in order to ascertain the value of genetic testing in this breed. An additional objective was to determine whether mutations in AMH or AMHR2 were responsible for PMDS in a Belgian Malinois; this would aid development of a genetic test for the Belgian Malinois breed. Genomic DNA from 216 Miniature Schnauzers (including one known PMDS case) was genotyped for the AMHR2 mutation, and DNA from a single PMDS-affected Belgian Malinois was sequenced for all coding exons of AMH and AMHR2. The Miniature Schnauzer cohort had an AMHR2 mutation allele frequency of 0.16 and a carrier genotypic frequency of 0.27. The genetic basis for PMDS in the Belgian Malinois was not determined, as no coding or splicing mutations were identified in either AMH or AMHR2. These findings support a benefit to AMHR2 mutation testing Miniature Schnauzers used for breeding or with cryptorchidism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-376
Number of pages6
JournalReproduction in Domestic Animals
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Partial funding for E.F. was provided by the Office of the Director, National Institute of Health (NIH) under award number K01-OD019912. Funding for M.M.S. was provided by Merial® via the 2016 Merial® Veterinary Scholars Program

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


  • Genetics < General reproduction
  • Miniature Schnauzer
  • Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome
  • dog


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