Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a contagious disease that affects a variety of domestic and wild avian species. Though ND is vaccine-preventable, it is a persistent threat to poultry industry across the globe. The disease represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in chickens. To better understand the epidemiology of NDV among commercial and backyard chickens of Odisha, where chicken farming is being prioritized to assist with poverty alleviation, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two distinct seasons during 2018. Choanal swabs (n = 1361) from live birds (commercial layers, broilers, and backyard chicken) and tracheal tissues from dead birds (n = 10) were collected and tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of matrix (M) and fusion (F) genes of NDV. Risk factors at the flock and individual bird levels (health status, ND vaccination status, geographical zone, management system, and housing) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Of the 1371 samples tested, 160 were positive for M gene amplification indicating an overall apparent prevalence of 11.7% (95% CI 10.1-13.5%). Circulation of virulent NDV strains was also evident with apparent prevalence of 8.1% (13/160; 95% CI: 4.8-13.4%). In addition, commercial birds had significantly higher odds (75%) of being infected with NDV as compared to backyard poultry (p = 0.01). This study helps fill a knowledge gap in the prevalence and distribution of NDV in apparently healthy birds in eastern India, and provides a framework for future longitudinal research of NDV risk and mitigation in targeted geographies-a step forward for effective control of ND in Odisha.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was funded by a United States Department of Defence, Defence Threat Reduction Agency, Biological Threat Reduction Program, Broad Agency Announcement grant HDTRA1-17-1-0045. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We thank the Director of Veterinary Services and Animal Husbandry, Government of Odisha, for helping to facilitate sampling.
© 2022 Sahoo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
- Antibodies, Viral/blood
- Cross-Sectional Studies
- Newcastle Disease/epidemiology
- Newcastle disease virus/genetics
- Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
- Risk Factors
- Viral Proteins/genetics
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
- Journal Article