Objective: To estimate the prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma, primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle-closure suspect (PACS) and its associated risk factors in a rural population in southern India. Methods: Three thousand and nine hundred thirty-four (81.95%) of 4800 enumerated subjects aged 40 years or older underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including compression gonioscopy. Glaucoma was diagnosed using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology classification. Results: Data were analyzed for 3924 subjects (81.75%). Primary angle-closure glaucoma was diagnosed in 34 subjects (0.87%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 1.16) (27 women, 7 men). The mean intraocular pressure was 20.71 ± 9.24 mm Hg. One subject (2.94%) was blind. Twenty-eight subjects (0.71%; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.98) were diagnosed to have PAC (21 women, 7 men). Eleven subjects (39.3%) had an intraocular pressure greater than 21 mm Hg, 13 subjects (46.43%) had peripheral anterior synechiae, and 4 subjects (14.29%) had both. Two hundred forty-six subjects (6.27%; 95% CI, 5.51 to 7.03) had PACS (168 women, 78 men). Primary angle closure and primary angle-closure glaucoma were more common in women (age-adjusted odds ratio, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.66 to 5.51) with an increasing prevalence with age. Increasing intraocular pressure was associated with the disease (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.19). There was no association with hypertension and hyperopia. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were longer in the normal group than in the 3 groups with angle closure (P<.05). Women had shorter axial lengths than men (P<.001) in the angle closure groups. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of primary angle closures (PAC and primary angle-closure glaucoma) in a rural population of southern India was 1.58%. There was a female preponderance, and the disease tends to be asymptomatic.