Prevalence of 12 Common Health Conditions in Sexual and Gender Minority Participants in the All of Us Research Program

Nguyen K. Tran, Mitchell R. Lunn, Claire E. Schulkey, Samantha Tesfaye, Siddhartha Nambiar, Snigdhansu Chatterjee, Dawn Kozlowski, Paula Lozano, Fornessa T. Randal, Yicklun Mo, Siya Qi, Ell Hundertmark, Chloe Eastburn, Anthony T. Pho, Zubin Dastur, Micah E. Lubensky, Annesa Flentje, Juno Obedin-Maliver

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5 Scopus citations


Importance: Limited data describe the health status of sexual or gender minority (SGM) people due to inaccurate and inconsistent ascertainment of gender identity, sex assigned at birth, and sexual orientation. Objective: To evaluate whether the prevalence of 12 health conditions is higher among SGM adults in the All of Us Research Program data compared with cisgender heterosexual (non-SGM) people. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from a multidisciplinary research consortium, the All of Us Research Program, that links participant-reported survey information to electronic health records (EHR) and physical measurements. In total, 372 082 US adults recruited and enrolled at an All of Us health care provider organization or by directly visiting the enrollment website from May 31, 2017, to January 1, 2022, and were assessed for study eligibility. Exposures: Self-identified gender identity and sexual orientation group. Main Outcomes and Measures: Twelve health conditions were evaluated: 11 using EHR data and 1, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), using participants' physical measurements. Logistic regression (adjusting for age, income, and employment, enrollment year, and US Census division) was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for the associations between each SGM group and health condition compared with a non-SGM reference group. Results: The analytic sample included 346 868 participants (median [IQR] age, 55 [39-68] years; 30 763 [8.9%] self-identified as SGM). Among participants with available BMI (80.2%) and EHR data (69.4%), SGM groups had higher odds of anxiety, depression, HIV diagnosis, and tobacco use disorder but lower odds of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Estimated associations for asthma (AOR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.24-0.63] for gender diverse people assigned male at birth; AOR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.38-0.69] for transgender women), a BMI of 25 or higher (AOR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.38-1.96] for transgender men), cancer (AOR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.07-1.23] for cisgender sexual minority men; AOR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.81-0.95] for cisgender sexual minority women), and substance use disorder (AOR, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.24-0.52] for gender diverse people assigned female at birth; AOR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.49-0.87] for transgender men) varied substantially across SGM groups compared with non-SGM groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the All of Us Research Program, SGM participants experienced health inequities that varied by group and condition. The All of Us Research Program can be a valuable resource for conducting health research focused on SGM people.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e2324969
JournalJAMA Network Open
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 3 2023

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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