Prevalence and Risk Factors for Kidney Disease and Elevated BP in 2-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Premature

PENUT Trial Consortium, Erin A Osterholm, Nancy Fahim, Raghavendra Rao

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16 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates born <28 weeks gestation are at risk for chronic disease. We sought to describe the prevalence of kidney outcomes by gestational age and determine risk factors for their development.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Recombinant Erythropoietin for Protection of Infant Renal Disease (REPAIReD) study examined kidney outcomes of extremely low gestational age neonates enrolled in the Preterm Epo NeuroProtection Trial (PENUT) study. Kidney function, urine albumin, and BP were measured at 2-year (24±2 months) corrected gestational age. We compared outcomes across gestational age categories and evaluated associations between kidney-related outcomes and neonatal and maternal characteristics. The primary outcome was eGFR <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (CKD); secondary outcomes were spot urine albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g (albuminuria) and either systolic BP or diastolic BP >90th percentile for height, age, and sex.

RESULTS: A total of 832 survived to 2 years, and 565 (68%) had at least one outcome measured. Overall, 297 (53%) had one abnormal kidney outcome; 61 (18%) had an eGFR <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 155 (36%) had albuminuria, 65 (22%) had elevated systolic BP, and 128 (44%) had elevated diastolic BP. Gestational age (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.99), birth weight z-score (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 0.98), and prenatal steroids (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.39) were associated with an eGFR <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2. An elevated systolic BP was associated with indomethacin use (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.33) and Black race (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.39); elevated diastolic BP was associated with male sex (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.49), severe AKI (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.48), and indomethacin use (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.33).

CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 18% of extremely low gestational age neonates have CKD, 36% have albuminuria, 22% have an elevated systolic BP, and 44% have an elevated diastolic BP at 2 years of age. Gestational age, birthweight z-score, and prenatal steroids were associated with CKD. Male sex, Black race, indomethacin use, and severe AKI were associated with elevated BP.

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Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1129-1138
Number of pages10
JournalClinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 by the American Society of Nephrology.


  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant
  • Pregnancy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Child, Preschool
  • Albuminuria/urine
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Birth Weight
  • Premature Birth
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis
  • Indomethacin
  • Albumins
  • Acute Kidney Injury

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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