The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease. We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with blood pressure at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male sex, black race, diabetes mellitus, and higher body mass index were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events than participants without ATRH-composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.22-1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11-1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38-2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06-1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and blood pressure at goal on ≥4 medications also had higher risk for composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, CHF, and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], (1.30 [1.12-1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28-1.99]) than those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and chronic kidney disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Lawrence J. Appel, MD, MPH, Harold I. Feldman, MD, MSCE, Alan S. Go, MD, Jiang He, MD, PhD, John W. Kusek, PhD, James P. Lash, MD, Akinlolu Ojo, MD, PhD, Mahboob Rahman, MD, and Raymond R. Townsend, MD are the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study Investigators Funding for the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study was obtained under a cooperative agreement from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U01DK060990, U01DK060984, U01DK061022, U01DK061021, U01DK061028, U01DK060980, U01DK060963, and U01DK060902). In addition, this work was supported, in part, by the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Clinical and Translational Science Award National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) UL1TR000003, Johns Hopkins University UL1 TR-000424, University of Maryland GCRC M01 RR-16500, Clinical and Translational Science Collaborative of Cleveland, UL1TR000439 from the NCATS component of the National Institutes of Health and NIH roadmap for Medical Research, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research UL1TR000433, University of Illinois at Chicago Clinical and Translational Science Award UL1RR029879, Tulane University Translational Research in Hypertension and Renal Biology P30GM103337, Kaiser Permanente NIH/National Center for Research Resources UCSF-CTSI UL1 RR-024131.
- Antihypertensive agents
- hypertension resistant to conventional therapy
- myocardial infarction
- renal insufficiency, chronic