Objective: To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of spinal cord injury (SCI)-related osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Thai people with chronic spinal cord injury. Design: A cross-sectional, observational study. Setting: Outpatient clinic, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital. Participants: Thais with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) (duration of injury at least one year). Intervention: Not applicable. Outcome measures: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed to measure bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip. Analyses were performed to identify risk factors for SCI-related osteoporosis or fragility fracture development. Thai FRAX® score was calculated with and without BMD and compared for each participant. Results: Among 64 Thais with chronic SCI, the prevalence of SCI-related osteoporosis was 43.8%. Female sex, non-ambulatory status, and at least 10 years duration of spinal cord injury increased the risk of having SCI-related osteoporosis. The prevalence of fragility fracture was 9.4%. Female sex, duration of SCI, and being diagnosed with SCI-related osteoporosis increased the risk of having a fragility fracture. Thai FRAX® score without BMD value underestimated the risk of prevalent fracture in 7.8% of participants. Conclusions: SCI-related osteoporosis and fragility fractures are common in Thais with chronic SCI. Our findings emphasize the importance of SCI-related osteoporosis and fragility fracture surveillance in people with chronic SCI regardless of their ethnicity. FRAX® without BMD calculations could underestimate the risk of fragility fracture in people with chronic SCI. Therefore, further studies are needed to develop an SCI-specific fracture-risk assessment tool using risk factors proposed in previous studies and in this study.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding This work was funded by a Faculty of Medicine Chiang Mai University Research grant number 028-2563/0 (S.P.) and the Spinal Research Institute (SRI) Early Career Researchers program 2019 (S.P. and L.M.).
© The Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals, Inc. 2022.
- Fragility fracture
- Risk factors
- Spinal cord injury
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article