Prevalence and correlates of CKD in hispanics/latinos in the United States

Ana C. Ricardo, Michael F. Flessner, John H. Eckfeldt, Paul W. Eggers, Nora Franceschini, Alan S. Go, Nathan M. Gotman, Holly J. Kramer, John W. Kusek, Laura R. Loehr, Michal L. Melamed, Carmen A. Peralta, Leopoldo Raij, Sylvia E. Rosas, Gregory A. Talavera, James P. Lash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Background and objectives The prevalence of ESRD among Hispanics/Latinos is 2-fold higher than in non-Hispanic whites. However, little is known about the prevalence of earlier stages of CKD among Hispanics/Latinos. This study estimated the prevalence of CKD in US Hispanics/Latinos. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a cross-sectional study of 15,161 US Hispanic/Latino adults of Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American backgrounds enrolled in the multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In addition, the prevalence of CKD in Hispanics/Latinos was compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Prevalent CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (estimated with the 2012 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration eGFR creatinine-cystatin C equation) or albuminuria based on sex-specific cut points determined at a single point in time. Results The overall prevalence of CKD among Hispanics/Latinos was 13.7%. Among women, the prevalence of CKD was 13.0%, and it was lowest in persons with South American background (7.4%) and highest (16.6%) in persons with Puerto Rican background. In men, the prevalence of CKD was 15.3%, and it was lowest (11.2%) in persons with South American background and highest in those who identified their Hispanic background as “other” (16.0%). The overall prevalence of CKD was similar in HCHS/SOL compared with non-Hispanic whites in NHANES. However, prevalence was higher in HCHS/SOL men and lower in HCHS/SOL women versus NHANES non-Hispanic whites. Low income, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were each significantly associated with higher risk of CKD. Conclusions Among US Hispanic/Latino adults, there was significant variation in CKD prevalence among Hispanic/Latino background groups, and CKD was associated with established cardiovascular risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1757-1766
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 7 2015

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© 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.


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