Prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome and its components among adults living with and without HIV in Nigeria: a single-center study

Jibreel Jumare, Patrick Dakum, Nadia Sam-Agudu, Peter Memiah, Rebecca Nowak, Florence Bada, Uzoamaka Oguama, George Odonye, Ruxton Adebiyi, Cristiana Cairo, Vivian Kwaghe, Clement Adebamowo, Alash’le Abimiku, Man Charurat

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3 Scopus citations


Background: Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) now live longer due to effective combination antiretroviral therapy. However, emerging evidence indicates that they may be at increased risk for some cardiometabolic disorders. We compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its component disorders between persons living with and without HIV in Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study of non-communicable diseases among PLHIV along with age- and sex-matched persons without HIV (PWoH) at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Nigeria. We collected sociodemographic and clinical data, including anthropometric measures and results of relevant laboratory tests. MetS was defined using a modification of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Results: Of the 440 PLHIV and 232 PWoH, women constituted 50.5% and 51.3% respectively. The median age of the PLHIV was 45 years while that of the PWoH was 40 years. The prevalence of MetS was 30.7% (95% CI: 26.4%, 35.2%) and 22.8% (95% CI: 17.6%, 28.8%) among the PLHIV and PWoH respectively (P = 0.026). Independent associations were found for older age (P < 0.001), female sex (P < 0.001), family history of diabetes (P < 0.001), family history of hypertension (P = 0.013) and alcohol use (P = 0.015). The prevalence of component disorders for PLHIV versus PWoH were as follows: high blood pressure (22.3% vs 20.3%), prediabetes (33.8% vs 21.1%), diabetes (20.5% vs 8.2%), high triglycerides (24.5% vs 17.2%), low HDL-Cholesterol (51.1% vs 41.4%), and abdominal obesity (38.4% vs 37.1%). Adjusting for age and sex, prediabetes, diabetes, and low HDL-Cholesterol were significantly associated with HIV status. Duration on antiretroviral therapy, protease inhibitor-based regimen, CD4 count, and viral load were associated with some of the disorders mostly in unadjusted analyses. Conclusion: We found a high burden of MetS and its component disorders, with significantly higher prevalence of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia among PLHIV as compared to PWoH. Integration of strategies for the prevention and management of MetS disorders is needed in HIV treatment settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number160
JournalBMC Endocrine Disorders
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

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© 2023, The Author(s).


  • Metabolic syndrome disorders HIV Nigeria prevalence characteristics

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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