Presenting Complications to a Reconstructive Urologist After Masculinizing Genital Reconstructive Surgery

Geolani W. Dy, Michael A. Granieri, Benjamin C. Fu, Alex J. Vanni, Bryan Voelzke, Keith F. Rourke, Sean P. Elliott, Dmitriy Nikolavsky, Lee C. Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the presenting complications of patients to reconstructive urologists after masculinizing gender affirming genital reconstructive surgery (GRS) performed elsewhere. Methods: We identified patients who underwent revision surgery by one of the co-authors for sequelae of masculinizing GRS. We reviewed patient demographics, medical history, details of prior GRS, and complications from GRS. Specific attention was paid to the presence of the following: suprapubic tube dependence, vaginal remnant, urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) within the fixed urethra (pars fixa), UCF in the phallic urethra, phallic urethral stricture, meatal stenosis, and anastomotic urethral stricture. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test to determine differences in presenting symptoms by GRS. Results: Fifty-five patients who had reconstructive surgery for complications from masculinizing GRS from September 2004 to September 2017 were identified. The median age at surgical correction was 33 years. Fifteen (27%) patients had prior metoidioplasty and 40 (73%) had prior phalloplasty. The median time from date of GRS to presentation to a reconstructive urologist was 4 months. Urethral strictures (n = 47, 86%) were the most common indication for subsequent surgery, followed by urethrocutaneous fistulae (n = 31, 56%) and vaginal remnant (n = 26, 47%). The majority of patients presented with 2 or more simultaneous complications (n = 40, 73%). Conclusion: There are several common presenting urologic complications after masculinizing GRS. Patients may present to reconstructive urologists early after GRS performed elsewhere. The long-term outcomes of GRS deserve further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)202-206
Number of pages5
StatePublished - Oct 2019

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© 2019 Elsevier Inc.


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