Present status and future directions of intracanal medicaments

Ronald Ordinola-Zapata, William C Noblett, Alejandro Perez-Ron, Zhou Ye, Jorge Vera

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Two fundamental goals of endodontic treatment are to prevent or treat apical periodontitis. From a predictive perspective, several variables can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Some of these variables depend on intraoperative factors, which include irrigation technique, size of the apical preparation, use of intracanal medicaments or the number of appointments necessary to complete the treatment. However, the outcome may also be affected by host and microbial factors. The intensity of periradicular bone loss or tissue damage, the presence of preoperative pain and associated conditions such as mechanical allodynia and central sensitization, the anatomical complexity of the apical portion of the canal, and the virulence and longevity of the bacterial infection can all have a profound influence on the outcome. Furthermore, numerous medical conditions have been reported to decrease the capability of the immune system to heal the periapical tissues. It is the clinician's responsibility to analyse these variables and incorporate them into the disinfection strategy to maximize the chances of healing. This narrative review will focus on the present status of intracanal medicaments, the clinical indications for their use and future directions for research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)613-636
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Volume55 Suppl 3
Issue numberS3
StatePublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research reported in this publication was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health Award Number UL1‐TR002494.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. International Endodontic Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Endodontic Society.


  • antimicrobial peptides
  • apical periodontitis
  • biofilms
  • calcium hydroxide
  • Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology
  • Root Canal Therapy/methods
  • Humans
  • Periapical Periodontitis/drug therapy
  • Disinfection
  • Calcium Hydroxide
  • Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use
  • Periapical Tissue

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Review
  • Journal Article


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