Preparation of Scalable Silica-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Nanowarming

Zhe Gao, Hattie L. Ring, Anirudh Sharma, Baterdene Namsrai, Nam Tran, Erik B. Finger, Michael Garwood, Christy L. Haynes, John C. Bischof

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Cryopreservation technology allows long-term banking of biological systems. However, a major challenge to cryopreserving organs remains in the rewarming of large volumes (>3 mL), where mechanical stress and ice formation during convective warming cause severe damage. Nanowarming technology presents a promising solution to rewarm organs rapidly and uniformly via inductive heating of magnetic nanoparticles (IONPs) preloaded by perfusion into the organ vasculature. This use requires the IONPs to be produced at scale, heat quickly, be nontoxic, remain stable in cryoprotective agents (CPAs), and be washed out easily after nanowarming. Nanowarming of cells and blood vessels using a mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle (msIONP) in VS55, a common CPA, has been previously demonstrated. However, production of msIONPs is a lengthy, multistep process and provides only mg Fe per batch. Here, a new microporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle (sIONP) that can be produced in as little as 1 d while scaling up to 1.4 g Fe per batch is presented. sIONP high heating, biocompatibility, and stability in VS55 is also verified, and the ability to perfusion load and washout sIONPs from a rat kidney as evidenced by advanced imaging and ICP-OES is demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1901624
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Dr. Qi Shao for help with the HDF cell culture, Zonghu Han for initial organ perfusion set up, Jacqueline Pasek-Allen for assistance on sIONP synthesis, and Dr. Andreas Stein for use of the TGA instrument and a vacuum oven. They also thank UMN's Department of Earth Science, and Institute for Rock Magnetism for providing instruments and assistance in characterization. Parts of this work were carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from NSF through the MRSEC program. The use of 9.4T-31 cm bore MRI scanner was supported by W. M. Keck Foundation. This work was funded by NIH EB027061, R01 HL135046, and R01 DK117425. DOD SBIR Phase II Contract No. W81XWH-16-C-0074, DOD Idea Award Contract No. W81XWH-16-1-0508. The views, opinions, and findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of Army position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other documentation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


  • core–shell nanoparticles
  • cryopreservation
  • iron oxide nanoparticles
  • radio frequency warming

MRSEC Support

  • Shared

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research (CMRR) tags

  • NMC
  • MRE
  • P41

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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