Prenatal iron supplementation reduces maternal anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia in a randomized clinical trial in rural China, but iron deficiency remains widespread in mothers and neonates

Gengli Zhao, Guobin Xu, Min Zhou, Yaping Jiang, Blair Richards, Katy M. Clark, Niko Kaciroti, Michael K. Georgieff, Zhixiang Zhang, Twila Tardif, Ming Li, Betsy Lozoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Previous trials of prenatal iron supplementation had limited measures of maternal or neonatal iron status. Objective: The purpose was to assess effects of prenatal iron-folate supplementation on maternal and neonatal iron status. Methods: Enrollment occurred June 2009 through December 2011 in Hebei, China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at ≤20 wk gestation, aged ≥18 y, and with hemoglobin ≥100 g/L were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive daily iron (300 mg ferrous sulfate) or placebo + 0.40 mg folate from enrollment to birth. Iron status was assessed in maternal venous blood (at enrollment and at or near term) and cord blood. Primary outcomes were as follows: 1) maternal iron deficiency (ID) defined in 2 ways as serum ferritin (SF) <15 μg/L and body iron (BI) <0 mg/kg; 2) maternal ID anemia [ID + anemia (IDA); hemoglobin <110 g/L]; and 3) neonatal ID (cord blood ferritin <75 μg/L or zinc protoporphyrin/heme >118 μmol/mol). Results: A total of 2371 women were randomly assigned, with outcomes for 1632 women or neonates (809 placebo/folate, 823 iron/folate; 1579 mother-newborn pairs, 37 mothers, 16 neonates). Most infants (97%) were born at term. At or near term, maternal hemoglobin was significantly higher (+5.56 g/L) for iron vs. placebo groups. Anemia risk was reduced (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66), as were risks of ID (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79 by SF; RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71 by BI) and IDA (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62 by SF; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.65 by BI). Most women still had ID (66.8% by SF, 54.7% by BI). Adverse effects, all minor, were similar by group. There were no differences in cord blood iron measures; >45% of neonates in each group had ID. However, dose-response analyses showed higher cord SF with more maternal iron capsules reported being consumed (ß per 10 capsules = 2.60, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Prenatal iron supplementation reduced anemia, ID, and IDA in pregnant women in rural China, but most women and >45% of neonates had ID, regardless of supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02221752.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1916-1923
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume145
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

Copyright:
Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Anemia
  • Iron deficiency
  • Iron deficiency
  • Iron supplementation
  • Neonates
  • Pregnant women
  • Randomized clinical trial

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