Prehospital intranasal midazolam for the treatment of pediatric seizures

Maija Holsti, Benjamin L. Sill, Sean D. Firth, Francis M. Filloux, Steven M. Joyce, Ronald A. Furnival

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The local emergency medical services (EMS) council implemented a new pediatric treatment protocol using a Mucosal Atomization Device (MAD) to deliver intranasal (IN) midazolam for seizure activity. METHODS: We sought to compare outcomes in seizing pediatric patients treated with IN midazolam using a MAD (IN-MAD midazolam) to those treated with rectal (PR) diazepam, 18 months before and after the implementation of the protocol. RESULTS: Of 857 seizure patients brought by EMS to our emergency department (ED), 124 patients (14%) had seizure activity in the presence of EMS and were eligible for inclusion in this study. Of the 124 patients eligible for this study, 67 patients (54%) received no medications in the prehospital setting, 39 patients (32%) were treated with IN-MAD midazolam, and 18 patients (15%) were treated with PR diazepam. Median seizure time noted by EMS was 19 minutes longer for PR diazepam (30 minutes) when compared with IN-MAD midazolam (11 minutes, P = 0.003). Patients treated with PR diazepam in the prehospital setting were significantly more likely to have a seizure in the ED (odds ratio [OR], 8.4; confidence interval [CI], 1.6-43.7), ED intubation (OR, 12.2; CI, 2.0-75.4), seizure medications in the ED to treat ongoing seizure activity (OR, 12.1; CI, 2.2-67.8), admission to the hospital (OR, 29.3; CI, 3.0-288.6), and admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (OR, 53.5; CI, 2.7-1046.8). CONCLUSIONS: The IN-MAD midazolam controlled seizures better than PR diazepam in the prehospital setting and resulted in fewer respiratory complications and fewer admissions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-153
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Emergency Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2007


  • Emergency medical services (EMS)
  • Intranasal
  • Prehospital
  • Seizures


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