Pre–Heart Failure Longitudinal Change in a Hispanic/Latino Population-Based Study: Insights From the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos

Toshiki Kuno, Nestor Vasquez, Ayana K. April-Sanders, Katrina Swett, Jorge R. Kizer, Bharat Thyagarajan, Gregory A. Talavera, Sonia G. Ponce, Bonnie E. Shook-Sa, Frank J. Penedo, Martha L. Daviglus, Mayank M. Kansal, Jianwen Cai, Dalane Kitzman, Carlos J. Rodriguez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Pre–heart failure (pre-HF) is an entity known to progress to symptomatic heart failure (HF). Objectives: This study aimed to characterize pre-HF prevalence and incidence among Hispanics/Latinos. Methods: The Echo-SOL (Echocardiographic Study of Latinos) assessed cardiac parameters on 1,643 Hispanics/Latinos at baseline and 4.3 years later. Prevalent pre-HF was defined as the presence of any abnormal cardiac parameter (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction <50%; absolute global longitudinal strain <15%; grade 1 or more diastolic dysfunction; LV mass index >115 g/m2 for men, >95 g/m2 for women; or relative wall thickness >0.42). Incident pre-HF was defined among those without pre-HF at baseline. Sampling weights and survey statistics were used. Results: Among this study population (mean age: 56.4 years; 56% female), HF risk factors, including prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, worsened during follow-up. Significant worsening of all cardiac parameters (except LV ejection fraction) was evidenced from baseline to follow-up (all P < 0.01). Overall, the prevalence of pre-HF was 66.7% at baseline and the incidence of pre-HF during follow-up was 66.3%. Prevalent and incident pre-HF were seen more with increasing baseline HF risk factor burden as well as with older age. In addition, increasing the number of HF risk factors increased the risk of prevalence of pre-HF and incidence of pre-HF (adjusted OR: 1.36 [95% CI: 1.16-1.58], and adjusted OR: 1.29 [95% CI: 1.00-1.68], respectively). Prevalent pre-HF was associated with incident clinical HF (HR: 10.9 [95% CI: 2.1-56.3]). Conclusions: Hispanics/Latinos exhibited significant worsening of pre-HF characteristics over time. Prevalence and incidence of pre-HF are high and are associated with increasing HF risk factor burden and with incidence of cardiac events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)946-957
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Heart Failure
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American College of Cardiology Foundation


  • Hispanics
  • diastolic dysfunction
  • echocardiography
  • left ventricular remodeling
  • systolic dysfunction

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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