Predictors of risk for smoking relapse in men and women: A prospective examination

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The current study examined whether prequit trait negative mood and smoking motives have different predictive patterns of smoking relapse in men and women. Thirty-three female (mean age ± SEM: 34.9 ± 2.5) and 38 male (mean age ± SEM: 37.1 ± 2.3) smokers interested in smoking cessation completed forms on smoking history, negative mood (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger), stress, and smoking motives. Participants also provided samples for measurement of cotinine and carbon monoxide. Then, they set a quit date and were required to abstain from smoking at least for 24 hours. Participants were followed up for 12 months postcessation to measure their smoking status. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that motivation to reduce craving was a unique predictor of smoking relapse in men, while depressive mood, anxiety, anger, and perceived stress were predictive of time to relapse among women. These findings remained significant after statistically controlling for smoking-related variables, providing preliminary evidence that different factors may be associated with nicotine withdrawal and smoking relapse in men and women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)633-637
Number of pages5
JournalPsychology of Addictive Behaviors
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2012


  • craving
  • negative mood
  • relapse
  • smoking
  • smoking motives


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