Predictors of outcomes after biliary and pancreatic sphincterotomy for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

Martin L. Freeman, Muzaffar Gill, Carol Overby, Ye Ying Cen

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51 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: There are few data on combined pancreatic and biliary sphincterotomy for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), especially regarding clinical features that might predict outcomes. We sought to examine the relative importance of various clinical features and the presence or absence of objective biliary abnormalities in determining responses to endoscopic therapy. METHODS: A cohort of consecutive patients with suspected SOD was treated with biliary sphincterotomy, with additional pancreatic sphincterotomy at initial or subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography if there was abnormal pancreatic manometry in conjunction with pain refractory to biliary sphincterotomy, continuous pain, or a history of amylase elevation. Repeat intervention was offered until response was achieved or complete ablation of all treated sphincters was achieved. Response was assessed by patients using a 5-point Likert scale, and multivariate logistic regression analysis used to identify predictors of response. RESULTS: Of 121 patients, 112 (92%) were female, 105 (87%) postcholecystectomy, and by modified Milwaukee biliary classification 18 (15%) were type I, 53 (44%) type II, and 50 (41%) type III. All patients underwent biliary sphincterotomy and 49 (40%) pancreatic sphincterotomy. Good or excellent response at final follow-up was reported by 83 (69%) of 121 patients, including 37 (61%) of 61 patients requiring repeated intervention. Response was not significantly different between biliary types I, II, and III. Patient characteristics (with adjusted odds ratios) that were significant predictors of poor response were normal pancreatic manometry (4.6), delayed gastric emptying (6.0), daily opioid use (4.0), and age <40 (2.7). Abnormal liver function tests or dilated bile duct were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of SOD incorporating pancreatic and biliary sphincterotomy, patient characteristics and pancreatic sphincter manometry may be more important predictors of outcome than the traditional classification based on liver chemistries and bile duct dilation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-102
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of clinical gastroenterology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2007


  • Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy
  • Endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy
  • Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction
  • Sphincter of Oddi manometry


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