Predictors of Nosocomial Pneumonia in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients: A Multi-center Observational Study

Afshin A. Divani, Mario Hevesi, Swaroopa Pulivarthi, Xianghua Luo, Fotis Souslian, Jose I. Suarez, Eric M. Bershad

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37 Scopus citations


Background: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is a frequent complication among spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) patients. This study was aimed at identifying in-hospital risk factors that predispose sICH patients to NP. Methods: We identified 591 consecutive sICH subjects admitted to six tertiary care hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Information regarding patients’ demographics, admission data, laboratory tests, medical history, diagnostic imaging, in-hospital treatments, complications, and outcomes were collected. Using a competing risks analysis, we assessed risk factors associated with NP. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 68 years; 51 % were female and 76 % were white. One-hundred sixteen (19.6 %) of the sICH patients had NP. In the univariate analysis, variables including age, non-white race, early hospital admission (<6 h after onset), larger hematoma volume, basal ganglia or intraventricular hemorrhage, multisite hemorrhage, in-hospital aspiration, intubation, nasogastric tube placement, hematoma evacuation, high ICH score, ventricular drainage, and tracheostomy had a positive association with NP. However, in the multivariate analysis, only early hospital admission, in-hospital aspiration, intubation, and tracheostomy remained statistically significant predictors (p < 0.05). For patients who survived hospitalization, the median length-of-stay (LOS) with or without NP was 20.0 and 4.0 days, respectively (p < 0.0001). For patients who did not survive to discharge, the median LOS with or without NP was 10.5 and 2.0 days, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Independent predictors of NP included early hospital admission, in-hospital aspiration, intubation, and tracheostomy. NP was associated with prolonged hospital LOS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)234-242
Number of pages9
JournalNeurocritical Care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


  • Aspiration
  • In-hospital complications
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Intubation
  • Length of stay
  • Nosocomial
  • Pneumonia
  • Stroke
  • Tracheostomy


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