Over 1 million children under age 5 years who have special needs are served by early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) intended to promote academic and non-cognitive school readiness. Past research suggested these services may have null or negative effects on kindergarten-reading skills, but these studies did not account for features of the services received by participants. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort, this study explored the relations between kindergarten-reading performance and EI/ECSE intensity and service provider. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of 550 participants (67% male, 63% White) indicated approximately 30% of the variance in kindergarten-reading is explained by a combination of child characteristics, hours of service and type of providers. Results suggest EI/ECSE effectiveness varies slightly by service intensity and provider, highlighting the need for additional research about the optimal conditions under which these services may be administered.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
No external funding was received or used for completion of this research.
© 2022 National Children's Bureau and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- developmental delay
- early childhood special education
- early reading
- school readiness