Importance The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has overwhelmed hospital capacity, prioritizing the need to understand factors associated with type of discharge disposition. Objective Characterization of disposition associated factors following SARS-CoV-2. Design Retrospective study of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients from March 7th, 2020, to May 4th, 2022, requiring hospitalization. Setting Midwest academic health-system. Participants Patients above the age 18 years admitted with PCR + SARS-CoV-2. Intervention None. Main outcomes Discharge to home versus PAC (inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF), skilled-nursing facility (SNF), long-term acute care (LTACH)), or died/hospice while hospitalized (DH). Results We identified 62,279 SARS-CoV-2 PCR+ patients; 6,248 required hospitalizations, of whom 4611(73.8%) were discharged home, 985 (15.8%) to PAC and 652 (10.4%) died in hospital (DH). Patients discharged to PAC had a higher median age (75.7 years, IQR: 65.6–85.1) compared to those discharged home (57.0 years, IQR: 38.2–69.9), and had longer mean length of stay (LOS) 14.7 days, SD: 14.0) compared to discharge home (5.8 days, SD: 5.9). Older age (RRR:1.04, 95% CI:1.041–1.055), and higher Elixhauser comorbidity index [EI] (RRR:1.19, 95% CI:1.168–1.218) were associated with higher rate of discharge to PAC versus home. Older age (RRR:1.069, 95% CI:1.060–1.077) and higher EI (RRR:1.09, 95% CI:1.071–1.126) were associated with more frequent DH versus home. Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics were less likely to be discharged to PAC (RRR, 0.64 CI 0.47–0.88), (RRR 0.48 CI 0.34–0.67) and (RRR 0.586 CI 0.352–0.975). Having alpha variant was associated with less frequent PAC discharge versus home (RRR 0.589 CI 0.444–780). The relative risks for DH were lower with a higher platelet count 0.998 (CI 0.99–0.99) and albumin levels 0.342 (CI 0.26–0.45), and higher with increased CRP (RRR 1.006 CI 1.004–1.007) and D-Dimer (RRR 1.070 CI 1.039–1.101). Increased albumin had lower risk to PAC discharge (RRR 0.630 CI 0.497–0.798. An increase in D-Dimer (RRR1.033 CI 1.002–1.064) and CRP (RRR1.002 CI1.001–1.004) was associated with higher risk of PAC discharge. A breakthrough (BT) infection was associated with lower likelihood of DH and PAC. Conclusion Older age, higher EI, CRP and D-Dimer are associated with PAC and DH discharges following hospitalization with COVID-19 infection. BT infection reduces the likelihood of being discharged to PAC and DH.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding for this study was provided by National Institute of Health’s National Center for advancing Translational Sciences Grant U01TR002062, however the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Copyright: © 2023 Ikramuddin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural