Predicting the Local Response of Metastatic Brain Tumor to Gamma Knife Radiosurgery by Radiomics With a Machine Learning Method

Daisuke Kawahara, Xueyan Tang, Chung K. Lee, Yasushi Nagata, Yoichi Watanabe

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24 Scopus citations


Purpose: The current study proposed a model to predict the response of brain metastases (BMs) treated by Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) using a machine learning (ML) method with radiomics features. The model can be used as a decision tool by clinicians for the most desirable treatment outcome. Methods and Material: Using MR image data taken by a FLASH (3D fast, low-angle shot) scanning protocol with gadolinium (Gd) contrast-enhanced T1-weighting, the local response (LR) of 157 metastatic brain tumors was categorized into two groups (Group I: responder and Group II: non-responder). We performed a radiomics analysis of those tumors, resulting in more than 700 features. To build a machine learning model, first, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression to reduce the number of radiomics features to the minimum number of features useful for the prediction. Then, a prediction model was constructed by using a neural network (NN) classifier with 10 hidden layers and rectified linear unit activation. The training model was evaluated with five-fold cross-validation. For the final evaluation, the NN model was applied to a set of data not used for model creation. The accuracy and sensitivity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the prediction model of LR were analyzed. The performance of the ML model was compared with a visual evaluation method, for which the LR of tumors was predicted by examining the image enhancement pattern of the tumor on MR images. Results: By the LASSO analysis of the training data, we found seven radiomics features useful for the classification. The accuracy and sensitivity of the visual evaluation method were 44 and 54%. On the other hand, the accuracy and sensitivity of the proposed NN model were 78 and 87%, and the AUC was 0.87. Conclusions: The proposed NN model using the radiomics features can help physicians to gain a more realistic expectation of the treatment outcome than the traditional method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number569461
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
StatePublished - Jan 11 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Kawahara, Tang, Lee, Nagata and Watanabe.


  • brain metastases
  • gamma knife
  • local control
  • machine learning
  • radiomics
  • radiosurgery


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