Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative aging disorder in which postmortemPD brain exhibits neuroinflammation, as well as synucleinopathy-associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzymatic activity loss. Based on our translational research, we began evaluating the PD-repurposing-potential of an anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and PP2A stimulatoryoral drug that is FDA-approved for multiple sclerosis, FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya1). We also designed two new FTY720 analogues, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy, with modifications that affect drug potency and mitochondrial localization, respectively. Herein, we describe the metabolic stability and metabolic profiling of FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Using mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes the intrinsic clearance of FTY720-C2 was 22.5, 79.5, 6.0, 20.2 and 18.3 μL/min/mg; and for FTY720-Mitoxy was 1.8, 7.8, 1.4, 135.0 and 17.5 μL/min/mg, respectively. In hepatocytes, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were metabolized from the octyl side chain, generating a series of carboxylic acids similar to the parent FTY720, but without phosphorylated metabolites. To assess absorption and distribution, we gave equivalent single intravenous (IV) or oral doses of FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy to C57BL/6 mice, with two mice per time point evaluated. After IV delivery, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were rapidly detected in plasma and brain; and reached peak concentrations at the first sampling time points. After oral dosing, FTY720-C2 was present in plasma and brain, although FTY720-Mitoxy was not orally bioavailable. Brain-to-plasma ratio of both compounds increased time-dependently, suggesting a preferential partitioningto the brain. PP2A activity in mouse adrenal gland increased ∼2-fold after FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy, as compared to untreated controls. In summary, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy both (i) crossed the blood-brain-barrier; (ii) produced metabolites similar to FTY720, except without phosphorylatedspecies that cause S1P1-mediated-immunosuppression; and (iii) stimulated in vivo PP2A activity, all of which encourage additional preclinical assessment.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2016 Enoru et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.