Preclinical evaluation of zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate-based PDT

Antonella Borgatti-Jeffreys, Stephen B. Hooser, Margaret A. Miller, Rose M. Thomas, Amalia DeGortari, Michael D. Lucroy

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the light activation of a drug within a tumor causing selective tumor cell death. Unfortunately, some photosensitizing drugs have been associated with adverse reactions in veterinary patients. Zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (ZnPcS 4) is a promising second-generation photosensitizer for use in veterinary medicine, however, it cannot be applied clinically until safety and efficacy data are available. ZnPcS 4 was given to Swiss Webster mice to assess acute toxicity. Doses >100 mg/kg were associated with acute toxicity and mortality, and doses >100 mg/kg resulted in renal tubular nephrosis, suggesting that the minimum toxic dose is approximately 100 mg/kg. Based on these data, a Phase I clinical trial of ZnPcS 4-based PDT in tumor-bearing dogs is underway, with ZnPcS 4 doses up to 2 mg/kg producing no apparent toxicity. Tumor response has been observed after ZnPcS 4-based PDT using doses as low as 0.25 mg/kg, suggesting that conventional phase I clinical trials may not be appropriate for PDT protocols.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number124
Pages (from-to)624-630
Number of pages7
JournalProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes
EventPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 22 2005Jan 25 2005


  • Animal model
  • Canine
  • Clinical trial
  • Dog
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Second-generation photosensitizer


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