Preceptor and resident perceptions of entrustable professional activities for postgraduate pharmacy training

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Background: Following the development and implementation of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) as a collective graduation standard for pharmacy students, the University of Minnesota's multi-site post-graduate year one pharmacy residency program made a similar transition. Educational activity and setting: An electronic survey was distributed to program preceptors and residents to describe the perceptions of using EPAs to assess performance. Findings: Residents (66.7%) and preceptors (78.3%) found the EPA framework to be more helpful than the traditional progression ratings model, but both groups also described EPAs as less beneficial for some objectives. Sixteen (69.6%) preceptors felt the residency graduation standard for attainment should be an entrustment level 4 or 5. Preceptor's found the EPA scale to be more descriptive, more objective, and easier to understand; however, it did not always apply to all skills and was more challenging to provide residents information regarding what they needed to improve upon. Residents commented that the EPA scale was more descriptive, had better clarity, and gave them a better idea of where their progression was at on a continuum. Residents also commented that regardless of the rating scale, specific, day-to-day feedback is more helpful. Residents and preceptors perceive the EPA framework to be more helpful than traditional rating scales when evaluating learning objectives. Preceptors were less certain of what the EPAs entrustment level should be to consider a learning objective or skill achieved for residency. Both found some learning objectives to be more challenging for EPA use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1594-1599
Number of pages6
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • Education
  • Entrustable professional activities
  • Professional development
  • Residency training


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