Pre-kidney Donation Pregnancy Complications and Long-term Outcomes

Erika S. Helgeson, Elise F. Palzer, David M. Vock, Paige Porrett, Deirdre Sawinski, Arthur J. Matas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes are contraindications for living kidney donation in young candidates. However, little is known about the long-term outcomes of women who had these pregnancy-related complications and subsequently became donors. In the general population, gestational hypertension (GHtn), preeclampsia/eclampsia, and gestational diabetes (GDM) are associated with long-term risks.

METHODS: Donors with the specified predonation complication were matched to contemporary control donors with pregnancies without the complication using nearest neighbor propensity score matching. Propensity scores were estimated using logistic regression with covariates for gravidity, blood pressure, glucose, body mass index, age, and creatinine at donation, donation year, race, relationship with recipient, and family history of disease. Long-term incidence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and reduced renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30, eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) were compared between groups using proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Of 1862 donors with predonation pregnancies, 48 had preeclampsia/eclampsia, 49 had GHtn without preeclampsia, and 43 had GDM. Donors had a long interval between first pregnancy and donation (median, 18.5 y; interquartile range, 10.6-27.5) and a long postdonation follow-up time (median, 18.0; interquartile range, 9.2-27.7 y). GHtn was associated with the development of hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.83); GDM was associated with diabetes (hazard ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-6.99). Pregnancy complications were not associated with eGFR <30 or eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 .

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that women with predonation pregnancy-related complications have long-term risks even with a normal donor evaluation. Donor candidates with a history of pregnancy-related complications should be counseled about these risks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2052-2062
Number of pages11
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases 5R01DK125431-02.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Creatinine
  • Diabetes Mellitus/etiology
  • Eclampsia
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Glucose
  • Humans
  • Hypertension/epidemiology
  • Kidney/physiology
  • Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects
  • Living Donors
  • Nephrectomy/adverse effects
  • Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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