There is growing evidence that disturbed sleep is a risk factor for the development of a number of psychiatric diagnoses including depression, PTSD and substance use. The goal of this study was to use a subset of participants from a larger prospective longitudinal study to examine whether preexisting daytime and nighttime sleep disturbances predict depression, PTSD and substance use in US National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq. Data on daytime and nighttime sleep complaints, baseline symptoms and personality variables were gathered prior to deployment to Iraq. Measures of psychopathology were collected at three time points post-deployment over the course of two years using both questionnaires and interviews. Multiple regressions were used to predict diagnoses and symptoms of depression, PTSD and substance use. Pre-deployment daytime and nighttime sleep complaints contributed significantly to the prediction of PTSD and depression up to two years after deployment, but not substance use. This study suggests that daytime and nighttime sleep complaints are a risk factor for internalizing disorders including PTSD and depression.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants to Melissa A. Polusny from the Minnesota Medical Foundation (Grant #3662-9227-06 ) and Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program ( W81XWH-07-2-0033 ), a grant to Christopher R. Erbes from the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development ( RRP 08-385 ), as well as a grant to Paul A. Arbisi from the University of Minnesota Press . This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN. The sponsors had no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.
- Substance use