Practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis

Joe Wheat, George Sarosi, David Mc Kinsey, Richard Hamill, Robert Bradsher, Philip Johnson, James Loyd, Carol Kauffman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

325 Scopus citations


Objective. The objective of this guideline is to provide recommendations for treating patients with the more common forms of histoplasmosis. Participants and consensus process. A working group of 8 experts in this field was convened to develop this guideline. The working group developed and refined the guideline through a series of conference calls. Outcomes. The goal of treatment is to eradicate the infection when possible, although chronic suppression may be adequate for patients with AIDS and other serious immunosuppressive disorders. Other important outcomes are resolution of clinical abnormalities and prevention of relapse. Evidence. The published literature on the management of histoplasmosis was reviewed. Controlled trials have been conducted that address the treatment of chronic pulmonary and disseminated histoplasmosis, but clinical experience and descriptive studies provide the basis for recommendations for other forms of histoplasmosis. Value. Value was assigned on the basis of the strength of the evidence supporting treatment recommendations, with the highest value assigned to controlled trials, according to conventions established for developing practice guidelines. Benefits and costs. Certain forms of histoplasmosis cause life-threatening illnesses and result in considerable morbidity, whereas other manifestations cause no symptoms or minor self-limited illnesses. The nonprogressive forms of histoplasmosis, however, may reduce functional capacity, affecting work capacity and quality of life for several months. Treatment is clearly beneficial and cost-effective for patients with progressive forms of histoplasmosis, such as chronic pulmonary or disseminated infection. It remains unknown whether treatment improves the outcome for patients with the self-limited manifestations, since this patient population has not been studied. Other chronic progressive forms of histoplasmosis are not responsive to pharmacologic treatment. Treatment options. Options for therapy for histoplasmosis include ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B (Fungizone; Bristol-Meyer Squibb, Princeton, NJ), liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome; Fujisawa, Deerfield, IL), amphotericin B colloidal suspension (ABCD, or Amphotec; Seques, Menlo Park, CA), and amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC, or Abelcet; Liposome, Princeton, NJ).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)688-695
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000


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